Every console does it their own way.
PSX and ps2 (maybe 3,4,5 not sure) all use the same ECC trick. You can read the disc but not copy it because a burner will not write a broken ECC.
GC, are written backwards and are GD-roms.
Not sure about XBOX, my guess is there are just PC discs as most of the xbox stuff is nothing more then a PC running windows (not really that knowledgeable about xbox).
DC, are also gd-roms that Sega managed to squeeze over a gigabyte of data on the disc. No PC drive will read that.
and I'm not sure about Saturn.