If you're looking to run emulators on your Windows PC, you may already have a good idea of what console controllers you'll want to use. For me, it's been years since I've used anything but my trusty wired Xbox 360 controller for everything from NES to SNES to PlayStation to Genesis (and beyond). The Xbox One controller has a similar layout, though some of the buttons have been moved around and it feels just a bit more comfortable in my hands.
Most emulators will let you configure your controls from within their settings menu, but if not you can try gamepad test https://gamepadtest.com/, which lets you test each functionality of your gamepad controller online.
Some emulators will not work with xinput, (either of those).
HID was the standard for many years. and recent emulators used xinput. Some only xinput, its a mess but that's why adapters exist that do both.
Bliss-Box.net is the best for HID (if you have originals), where xbox like are the best for xinput. If you want a HID without using originals, consider the switch pro.
Or look in to apps like x360ce
I like the idea of Bliss-Box because it works on some usb consoles and PC's and with the upcoming Brdige adapter, it can also be xinput and work on other non USB consoles as well.